When you are trying to set up a new Linux server, dealing with firewalls can get quite overwhelming. Here’s a beginner’s guide to firewalls on Linux.
Traffic into or out of a computer is filtered through “ports,” which are relatively arbitrary designations appended to traffic packets destined for use by a particular application.
By convention, some ports are routinely used for particular types of applications. For example, port 80 is generally used for insecure web browsing and port 443 is used for secure web browsing.
Traffic to particular applications can be allowed or blocked by “opening” or “closing” (i.e. filtering) the ports designated for a particular type of traffic. If port 80 is “closed,” for example, no (insecure) web browsing will be possible.
The default firewall configuration tool for Ubuntu is
ufw. It stands for uncomplicated firewall. Developed to ease iptables firewall configuration,
ufw provides a user-friendly way to create an IPv4 or IPv6 host-based firewall. By default
ufw is disabled.
ufw will block all of the incoming connections and allow all outbound connections. This means that anyone trying to access your server will not be able to connect unless you specifically open the port, while all applications and services running on your server will be able to access the outside world.
Install Uncomplicated Firewall:
sudo apt install ufw
Allow SSH before enabling the firewall, otherwise you will lock yourself out.
sudo ufw allow ssh
If SSH is running on a different port than the default 22, use
sudo ufw allow 23/tcp
sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw status verbose
e.g. If everything worked so far, you will get the following output
Status: active Logging: on (low) Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed) New profiles: skip To Action From -- ------ ---- 22/tcp ALLOW IN Anywhere 22/tcp (v6) ALLOW IN Anywhere (v6)
Open a specific application protocol on the default port:
sudo ufw allow http
Open a specific port:
sudo ufw allow 80/tcp
Allow connections for an application profile, such as NGINX:
sudo ufw allow 'Nginx'
To check which application profiles are installed,
sudo ufw app list
Only allow connection from certain IP address:
sudo ufw allow from 126.96.36.199 (to any port 80)
Deny all connections from certain IP address:
sudo ufw deny from 188.8.131.52 (to any port 80)
Delete firewall rules:
sudo ufw deny 80/tcp
or, first get a numbered list of all rules and then delete it:
sudo ufw status numbered sudo ufw delete 3
Source: UFW documentation